Mental Retardation – Treatment and Education

HISTORICALEarly records tell of Spartan parents exposing their handicapped offspring to the elements to perish. Few other accounts are available, but by the Middle Ages the retarded were exploited as fools or jesters. The Protestant Reformation found the retarded suspected of being possessed with the devil. The common treatment was “to beat the devil out of them.”Despite the poor treatment afforded the retarded, the churches of Europe from the thirteenth century on began to systematically provide asylums for the less fortunate members of society. No treatment or education was provided, but sanctuary was available from the cruel and competitive society.Prior to 1800 the prevalent belief was that retardation was inherited and consequently not treatable. In 1800 Jean Itard, a French physician, began working with the “wild boy of Aveyron.” This boy, captured in the forests of Aveyron, was diagnosed as severely retarded. Itard believed that training and practice could reverse some of the effects of retardation. His efforts produced marked changes in the boy’s behavior. While the boy never achieved the ability to talk or live independently, this was the beginning of treatment and education for retarded persons.In 1850 Edward Seguin, a student of Itard, arrived in the United States. Having expanded Itard’s work, Seguin opened residential schools for the retarded. His complex, systematic sequence of training made him recognized as an international leader in the field. By 1900 residential schools were established throughout the country. These schools were intended as training schools, dedicated to curing mental retardation. But cure did not occur, and the nature of these schools has radically changed. Rather than attempting a cure, they now emphasize the enhancement of social competence, personal adequacy, and occupational skills.In 1912 Maria Montessori, a student of Seguin, opened her schools for training the retarded. She developed a system of self-teaching that trains through the senses. In 1914 Charles Scott Berry began a teacher training program in Lapeer, Michigan. Soon after, the first college course on mental retardation was offered at what is now Eastern Michigan University.CURRENT TRENDSThe movement from viewing retardation as purely hereditary to purely environmental has led to a contemporary position that views it as usually the result of the interaction of both these factors. Treatment focuses on training in personal skills to help an individual reach the highest possible level attainable for the deficiency.One important trend in recent work with the retarded has related to the concept of normalization or mainstreaming. This refers to the right of retarded individuals to participate in normal activities. Such activities include privacy, dignity, liberty, the right to engage in loving relationships, and marriage. Special classrooms, although designed to provide homogeneous groupings to enhance manageable training, specialized curricula that would be in line with the interest of the group, and special training needs for teachers, have often been seen as dumping grounds and discriminatory.In 1965 the passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act provided special programs of assistance to disadvantaged and handicapped children in the United States. In 1969, 14 regional instructional materials centers were developed to provide ready access to valid materials and information.The provision of free public education for all mentally retarded citizens within the context of as natural an environment as feasible was mandated by passage of Public Law 94-142 and Section 502 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The presumption is that society is obligated to support efforts to integrate retarded individuals into the fabric of the community. Mainstreaming attempts to reduce the discriminatory aspect of being retarded.The implications of these laws for education are drastic. Free education is provided, even if it means special schooling. The least restrictive environment allows a retarded person to study in regular schools if possible. It is necessary for public schools to make allowances for handicaps, with facilities for wheelchairs or other devices. These requirements have given retarded persons an opportunity for normal education and interaction in society. Special education is provided for the more severe cases where participation in regular classrooms is not possible. In both cases yearly plans specify what is to be taught. This reduces the possibility of ignoring the children and reverting to minimal training.Likewise, more adequate living situations are provided. Rather than dumping children into institutions, it is mandated that more normal housing be provided. While institutionalization is necessary for some retarded persons, due to the severity of retardation or specific problems involved, these persons are to receive normal treatment as much as possible. Otherwise, group homes, foster homes, nursing homes, even support in one’s own home are provided. Residential facilities are designed to be as colorful, warm, and friendly as a typical home.Where possible, vocational training is given. Providing a means of earning an income gives retarded persons a sense of achievement and worth. It enhances self-esteem to be in a work situation and accomplish a task.Regular psychological assessments are also required. These occur naturally in normal schools, where academic advance is a primary means of assessment. Since retarded persons learn slower, more regular assessments are needed to verify the strengths, determine if there are other underlying problems, and provide direction for educational plans.

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Travel Tips – How to Travel Light While Packing All the Essentials

If you’re going on a trip abroad, it is best to be well-prepared with travel tips in mind. There are items that you need to bring as well as things that won’t be much use on the trip. A tour of a country usually involves a lot of walking and transferring from one town to another; thus, it is best to travel light. One carry-all luggage should be enough for a 7-day and 6-night tour and a handbag that contains only the essential things you need for the trip.

There are things that you must bring and keep with you at all times. These are the items that must be placed inside your handbag. Thus, it is best to bring a large handbag with lots of compartments or a bag with an organizer inside it. This way, it will be much easier to find and retrieve items that you need. Here are the items that are recommended to be placed inside your handbag when traveling to any foreign country. Let these packing tips help you to travel light and pack only all the essential stuff.

Passport with visa
Airline ticket
Identification preferably a driver’s license
Wallet with cash (US dollars), credit cards and an ATM card
An international cell phone (a handy and cheap one will do)
Digital camera that’s lightweight with extended battery
Small flashlight
Calling card of the hotel you’re staying at
Map of the country you’re visiting in case you get lost
Wet ones and small pack of tissue paper
Medication if any
Contact number of the person who handles your tour group
Depending on your needs and daily requirements, you may also need to bring other extra stuff in your handbag to make your vacation more enjoyable. A small sunscreen would be a great idea as well as any device that allows you to connect with friends and family via wireless internet. There are also people who bring their iPods with them so that they can listen to music while traveling in the bus. A book would also be a nice addition so you can read something while waiting for your flight. Just remember though, that bringing too many gadgets can make your handbag heavy. A great idea would be to bring only one gadget that already contains an eBook, music, contacts and wifi connection among other things. A cellphone or one gadget that comes with all of these features would be a great idea to travel light.

For your suitcase, make sure that it contains chargers for your gadgets, and the clothes that you will be wearing on the trip. Clothing must include a nice dress for the ladies, shirts, shorts, jeans, a rain jacket and disposable underwear. The latter makes traveling so much easier as you can simply throw these away after use; thus giving your luggage extra space on your return flight. A rain jacket, on the other hand may come in handy if you’re going to a place with tropical climate. If you’re expecting sun and rain on your trip, do bring a rain jacket but also include flip-flops and a bathing suit if you plan to do some swimming and sunbathing at the beach. While you want to travel light, you also need to keep in mind that bringing the above items will make your stay more enjoyable.

While there are things that must be brought, there are also items that are not necessary. The items that can just make your bag heavy are as follows:

expensive jewelry
water bottles
high-heeled shoes
blow dryer
shampoo, soap and conditioner
first aid kit
On evenings out, girls can wear ballet flats instead of uncomfortable high heels as flat shoes are lighter. There’s also no need to bring things that you can find in your hotel room such as blow dryer, shampoo, soap, conditioner, towels and lotion. Also ask if the tour you are joining has a first aid kit ready if in case something goes wrong. This way, you don’t need to bring an emergency kit. Having a light luggage is so convenient as it let’s you quickly pack and move from one hotel to another.

If you plan to do a lot of shopping, then it’s alright if you pack only one or two outfits on your trip. You can buy new clothes and then just wear these clothes on the trip. Doing this allows you to further reduce the weight of your luggage while getting yourself new clothes to wear.

It is advisable to wear jeans on the plane as this is not only bulky when placed inside a suitcase, but it also allows a person to easily move when travelling. Also keep your jacket with you in case it rains. Wearing jeans and a nice rain jacket on the plane further gives your luggage less weight; thus, allowing you to really travel light to and from the country you’re visiting.

Travel and leisure is fun and exciting. With travel tips in mind and knowing what items to bring and leave behind, you can properly plan your vacation and truly enjoy your stay. It is always an advantage to travel light while making your trip more comfortable by bringing only all the necessary items.

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Meeting Travelling Companions Online Has Never Been Easier!

With the internet being what it is these days, there are many ways to stay in touch with your friends and family from home, upload photos to share with your loved ones, and keep on top of your travel plans and make bookings – but what about meeting new people? Being able to meet new friends on your travels could be made easier with the internet, and certainly staying in touch with your new friends once you have moved on is easier than it has ever been, online. The birth of online communities of like minded people who share their experiences with fellow travellers, has made planning an overseas trip so much easier for the modern backpacker.

The ability to meet friends that you could travel with, before you even leave home, is now possible on the internet, with the introduction of online portals and hubs where people who are travelling, or are about to go travelling can connect and share experiences and travel plans. Getting tips from fellow travellers, about places to stay, things to do, and great places to visit is easy, at an online community or forum. Valuable information can be passed among backpackers, and making arrangements to meet up with friends while travelling can be as simple as hopping online in an internet cafe!

Before you even reach a destination, you could meet new friends who will be there when you are, and you have an instant circle of friends to socialise with, and maybe even travel with. You may even be able to meet people from back home, and make friends not only for on your travels, but to socialise with when you return – maybe you could even find a travelling partner, or someone to share the expenses with, who is preparing to leave on their journey and would like someone to backpack with. The possibilities are endless!

There is always someone who has been there before you and done the things you are planning to do, and is willing to share their experiences with you, with great tips for happy travelling. Stories from experienced backpackers, are valuable insights that first time travellers and backpackers should be keen to take on board. Using the internet to connect with these travellers, is a smart way to get in touch with people in the know, and even meet new friends in the process.

You may be able to gain information about cheap accommodation deals, great places to eat while on a tight budget, all the places to socialise and meet new friends, and meet up with friends you met online. The world is getting smaller every day, with the help of the internet. Life is getting easier and making friends, planning travels, and getting great tips are just a few of the ways in which the internet is changing our lives for the better.

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Email Marketing Challenges And Solutions

Email marketing is an important part of digital marketing and it is definitely a biggest challenging task for all internet marketing professionals. Nowadays, the process has become very crucial enough to make it on the top of every business to business marketer’s priority list. Usually all B2B marketer’s earned their fair share of up and downs by this endeavor. Even, it is very natural to face a lot of email marketing challenges along the way.

Challenges Faced By B2B Marketers With Email Marketing:

Most Appropriate Emails Are Considered as Spam:

It is one of the most important challenges of all e-mail marketing challenges and probably one of the most frustrating to deal with. In most cases, legitimate and appropriately sent email messages are considered as spam messages by the people receiving them. It is frustrating only but they can do something to deal with this problem. The best way to deal with this issue is by putting the exact subject on the email headlines and clearly nothing there that it is not a sales pitch of anything.

Getting People on the Mailing List:

This is one of the biggest challenges in bulk e-mail marketing. Getting other peoples emails might make them think that they are desperate of getting it and makes them worry about the likes and the spam. The best solution for this issue is to make them to understand about the benefits and advantages are when they get themselves on your list.

Providing Unique And Relevant Content:

This is another simple challenge to deal with. The Easiest way to solve this problem is to group the content on respective niches and also by grouping the email recipients the same way.

Improving Online marketing Results:

In General, it is a massive challenge. It is something to deal with effectively utilizing professional email marketing strategies and tools to affect the whole system of email marketing success.

Usually dealing with all e-mail marketing challenges will make it possible to improve marketing results. Using the proper tools as well as the proper techniques and methods also contributes to a marketing success. Success of any bulk Email marketing depends on proper marketing system execution and the use of the proper tools affects greatly in marketing. Dealing with email challenges effectively would lead to better and more comprehensive results.

Reaching a Measurable Return on Investment:

Most of the companies are using Closed-loop marketing tactics. The Closed loop marketing is used to follow the customer from the starting email to become a customer. By this way, many companies are tracking the customers interest and activity. Closed loop marketing helps the business to recognize a potential customer.

Solutions For E-mail Marketing Problems:

Solving email marketing problems are very much crucial to the web or internet user. Email marketing is one of the best technique or new horizon for business entrepreneurs to explore more profit. There are few challenges based on e-mail marketing. Some of the potential issues and solutions are mentioned below to solve email marketing problems successfully.

1. Earning Trust Of The Clients or customers

2. Solving with email challenges related to quality of email addresses

3. Stay in contact or keep in communication with the customers after sending the promotional emails.

Some of the solutions are mentioned above can helps to run a more successful and a better e-mail marketing campaign.

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Improve Your Poor Credit Score and Secure Yourself a Loan

So you are thinking of getting some extra money to make some urgent home repairs, the porch door needs replacing, along with a new hot water system. Unfortunately you do not have the money in the bank, but neither do you have a secure porch door or any constant hot water.

Have you considered personal loans? A lot of people take out personal loans for this type of repair. Car repairs and even holidays are used by people with their newly acquired finances. Most people have heard that a poor credit score is not a good thing (However even those that have a poor financial history can still get loans). But how do you make a good rating?

One of thing major pieces of advice from experts, before you apply for finance it is best to get a credit report completed from a reputable source. This will give you an idea of the chance of getting your application approved. In the United States of America there are three levels of credit rating, basically the higher it is the better it is.

An excellent rating is above 760, a good rating would be between 700 and 759 and a poor rating would be between 640 to 699. if you are at the top end, 760 and above then there is no point in making your rating any better. However with other ratings it is worth trying to improve as it will help your chances of succeeding in the application.

There does seem to be a bit of a chicken and egg situation sometimes, you need finance but have a poor score,but to improve you need a lender to give you a chance. Well, luckily there are things that you and your family if you have one, can do to improve your rating.

Having a poor rating does not mean you have to be stuck with it, starting to pay the bills on time instead of late or not at all will start to get you on the right path. Some lenders will still give applicants loans even with a low score, but the total given will be lower than usually and the percentage rate will be considerably higher. So you will pay more over the period of the finance.

Families can help too. If a member of your family has a good rating then some credit card companies can add you to that family members credit card as an authorized user, this will help with any poor credit score. Also having a family member with a good rating co-sign the loan could help you get what you need.

Finding the correct lender for your score is a good way to make sure that you are getting what you deserve, if you have a high score you deserve some of the best deals on the market. Instead of going to your bank or card company you can go online and search for a matching company. Companies like this are a good place go to make sure you achieve the best deal.

What are a matching company and what do they do? You enter your details on their online program and your information will be fed to several of their approved lenders, in turn the lenders will then return to the matching company with a list of loans that they are able to offer.

Once the offers come back it is then up to the applicant to choose one and complete all the necessary paperwork. A check will then be received within a matter of days and your new boiler and door fitted soon after.

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Payment Options for Shopping All the Way

Everyone is busy. Busy in shopping online and in the malls. Popular online portals are breaking and making new sale records! All thanks to the convenience and the availability of easy payment options and funds!

Here are few of the factors that are making online businesses a success

Credit Cards: A credit card is plastic money. It is one of the easiest form in which a person gets a personal loan.

All online portals as well as retailers in malls accept credit cards issued by various banks.
Online payment becomes very simple and safe, thanks to the one time passwords generated for such transactions.
A PIN is sufficient for shopping using a credit card at any retail store.

Personal loans for shopping: When we apply for a personal loan, we don’t have to provide the financier with the details of what we want the loan for.

Thus these days’ personal loans are being used to finance shopping.
They can also be used as wedding loans, vacation loans and educational loans.

Payment Processing: As far as payment processing is concerned, the following factors matter to both the consumer and the online retailer.

Uncomplicated manoeuvring on website: It is important for the payment process to be step-by-step and easy to understand. Most websites work on this section very carefully and thus the online shopping experience is satisfactory.

Processing Costs: Processing costs matter to the retailers. More the processing fees they have to pay to providers of payment gateways like Visa, the lesser are their margins. So to have an effective business the processing costs need to be low.
Number of payment options: Multiple payment options should be available for the customer to make payment. This makes the shopping a convenient proposition.
Time taken to process transactions: Processing time not only tests your patience but sometimes also the strength of your internet connection!

Cash on Delivery: This is also known as “collection on delivery.” This is a very popular mode of making payments for shopping in the developing world.

It enhances impulse purchases.
A credit card is not an essential possession for the buyer.
The buyer can check the quality of the product and then pay

So this festive season, do not hesitate to shop and to gift! The availability of funds for shopping is not difficult anymore. Also the convenience of online shopping has brought various retailers to our doorstep. So let us shop all the way!

An easy way of shopping is using a credit card. It forms an integral part of most people’s financial planning. When used in the right manner, it helps reduce financial liability and optimizes financial resources.

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Are Online Personal Loans Good For People With Bad Credit?

While the rise of online lending in itself makes it more convenient for people to apply for finance, is this development a good thing for those who are already struggling? There are companies out there who charge expensive annual percentage rates (APRs), leaving many people in more trouble than when they first started.

But it doesn’t have to be this way. Over the last few years, online lending has earned itself a bad reputation. The internet leaves many people vulnerable to fraud, so you should always exercise caution when inputting your financial details. The best way to make sure your information remains safe is to find a secure, reliable lending platform.

There is an unfair irony attached to lending today. Those with bad credit are often led to believe they have no financial options if they have made mistakes in the past, often making their situations seem more desperate than they actually are. This can result in people making bad decisions and can lead to borrowing through unstable sources.

Meanwhile, any lenders that do accept you with bad credit will charge extortionate interest rates because of your history, making it more difficult for you to meet your monthly repayment obligations – thus worsening your situation. This is a trap that many people fall into, and it gives online installment lenders a bad name.

However, this doesn’t need to be the case. If you can find yourself a reliable lending platform, you will be connected to a secure network of trustworthy lenders who can offer sensible solutions to your borrowing needs. Many of these lenders will assess your application, even if your credit file isn’t perfect or your income is lower than average.

Instead of (or in some cases, as well as) running credit checks, these lenders will take other factors into consideration, including your income and employment circumstances, and how long you have lived at your current address. They may even ask for references they can contact who will vouch for your character personally.

Even those who receive benefits as a form of income will be able to apply, giving everyone a fair and carefully considered chance of borrowing money. In these cases, applicants won’t be accepted for higher loans than they can afford to pay back, and interest rates will be low, meaning there is a better chance of managing repayments.

If you have poor credit and need to borrow money, consider a personal installment loan, but make sure the APR is advertised between 5.99% and 35.99%. There should also be a number of options in terms of flexible repayment, offering you the chance to pay the money back anywhere between six months and six years, depending on what you can afford to pay per month.

Small, carefully considered personal loans could actually help you build a financial profile making you eligible for better future borrowing. As long as the lender is responsible, and offers reasonable interest rates, online lending platforms can actually give people with more opportunities than many other lenders in terms of improving their situation.

With this in mind, personal loans can be beneficial to those hoping to improve their credit score, but only if some caution is exercised by both parties, and you only apply to borrow an amount you can afford to pay back.

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Five Reasons for Refusal of a Personal Loan

Don’t you wish personal finance were a mandatory course in college? Unfortunately, too many of us learn by mistake. When you need a personal loan and are rejected, you might be baffled as to what went wrong- and how to fix it. Here are some clues.


No credit is a situation where you have never used credit and therefore have no credit history for the bank to review. They have no way of making an educated decision on whether or not you will pay back a personal loan based on your credit history. No credit is worse than bad credit. Qualifying for and making regular payments on these types of introductory forms of credit can overcome a “no credit” score:

· Student Loans

· Secured credit card (includes a down payment amount)

· Being added to a parent’s or spouses good credit: card, car loan, etc.


Low credit takes on several forms. If you’re using more than 30% of your allowable debt, it can negatively impact your score. Too many inquiries from shopping around for loans will also hit you hard. Lapses in payment, defaults, or bankruptcies are giant red flags and can take a long time to rebuild from.

Other things that lenders may look at are whether or not you have sizeable assets should you default on the loan. They also check to see if your debts are diversified or if you are only carrying one type of debt.


Proof of income is generally required when applying for a personal loan. If you are unemployed or underemployed, it can work against you in the loan approval process. Lenders may also require a work history to see how long you have been with your current employer, and to determine if you typically have job stability. Frequent job loss or change will tell a creditor that your payments may not be reliable.


Believe it or not, your application can be rejected due to your proposed purpose for the loan. Financial institutions have the right to set up the parameters surrounding their disbursements and can accept or reject your application based on what you want to use the money for.


If you’ve defaulted on debt before, your name may be put on a list of whom not to loan to,’ also known as a “Blacklist.” This will follow you around for a long time and is difficult to erase. If you do resolve the debt issues, get documents to prove the resolution.

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How Can A Personal Loan Improve Your Credit Score?

When it comes to a personal loan, you have to first learn to use it responsibly. Because if you miss a repayment, your credit score will be impacted adversely. And remember, that a credit score is an indicator of how well you manage your personal finances. Also, it plays a defining role when you apply for any kind of loan – secured and unsecured. It is suggested to apply for a loan slightly larger than what is needed so that you will be assured to have enough money to pay all bills necessary and still have some money left over to ensure that your bank account stays current.

A credit score can be defined as a number which reflects the financial situation of a person. If the person is well-off when it comes to financial matters, then he or she is said to have a high credit score. On the other hand, if a person is the exact opposite of this, then they possess a low credit score. There are a lot of factors that are considered by financial institutions for the purpose of evaluating a person’s credit score – usually, the credit scores of people vary from 300 to about 850.

A personal loan is a type of loan that is given by digital lenders, banks and credit unions to aid you in your plans, be it starting a small business, or making a big purchase. Personal loans tend to have an interest rate(s) lower than the credit cards; however, they can also be put to use for combining several credit card debts together into one monthly lower-cost payment.

Now, your credit score is built by keeping in mind various parameters from your credit reports. These reports serve the purpose of trailing your history of utilization of the credit across the duration of seven years. These credit reports are comprised of information, including how much credit you have utilized to date, the type of credit in your possession, the age of one’s credit accounts, whether one has put in for bankruptcy or liens filed against them, actions of debt collections taken against them, one’s total open lines of credit as well as recent inquiries for hard credit.

Like any other type of credit, personal loans are very capable of affecting your credit score. This can be done through the process of applying and withdrawing a personal loan. If you are curious as to how personal loans can end up affecting your credit, then read on to find out more about the context. There are many ways in which your credit can be affected by personal loans and some of them are listed below:

The ratio of your debt-to-income and loan

Debt-to-income ratio is considered to be the measure of your amount of income that you spend on the debt repayments. In the case of lenders, the amount of income that you receive is said to be one of the major factors proving that you are able to repay your loan.

Some of the lenders have come up with their own debt-to-income ratio so that their proprietary credit scores may make use of it in the form of a credit consideration. Do not fall into the kind of mindset that possessing a high amount of a loan would hurt your credit. The most damage it can do is raise the ratio of your debt-to-income so that you won’t be able to apply for loans anymore without it getting rejected or denied.

Paying loans on time will make credit scores soar

The moment your loan is approved, you have to make sure that you settle the payments of each month on time and in full. Delay in repayment may significantly impact the state of your credit score. However, on the other hand, if you make the payments on time every month, then your credit score will soar high, leading to an overall good score. This will not only make your name to the preferred borrower’s list, but it will prove to be beneficial for you in the long run.

Since your payment history is comprised of almost 35% of your credit score, paying loans on time is essential in cases like these so that your credit score can maintain a positive status.

Variety is built into your credit type

There are about five factors that are responsible for determining your credit score. These are composed of the payment history, the length of the credit history, the utilization ratio of the credit, the credit mix and new inquiries of the credit in accordance with FICO®.

The credit mix only accounts for about 35% of your total credit score, whereas when it comes to a personal loan you can have a varying mix of the credit types. This mix of all types of credit is viewed at a high level of approval by the creditors and lenders.

Origination fee charged by loans

Most of the lenders end up charging you an origination fee. This fee cannot be avoided at any cost and is instantly taken off from the amount of the loan payment. The amount of origination fees depends upon the amount of the loan you are about to borrow. Late payments can lead to an overdraft of fees and late expenses. Therefore, make sure that you pay complete repayment for each month before the deadline.

Avoiding penalties when it comes to payments

Some of the credit lenders tend to charge an additional fee if you end up paying your part of the loan earlier than the agreed date. This is because they are looking for moderate amounts of interest on your loan. Now, seeing that you have paid off your part of the loan before time, they will miss out on that interest that they could have possibly made if you had not cleared the debt soon enough before the deadline.

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